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SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING ORAL & POSTER ABSTRACT PRESENTATIONS 

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The Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Activator Induces a Nitric Oxide Production and Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species in Endothelial Cells

Previously, we have verified that the relaxation to NO donor sodium nitroprusside is potentiated in the presence of endothelium. Thus, the aim of this study was verify if the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by ataciguat in endothelial cells induces a NO production, as well as identify the mechanism of this action.

Effect of Acute Isokinetic Resistance Exercise On Systemic Arterial Hemodynamics And Cerebral Blood Flow Dynamics: Is There a Mismatch?  2016 Early Investigator Award Winner

Resistance exercise (RE) is currently recommended for most adults and is important for reducing risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and improving quality of life. Despite functional and musculoskeletal benefits, high-intensity RE has been shown to acutely increase arterial stiffness and blood pressure, with reduced cerebral blood flow velocity and greater flow pulsatility in the cerebral circulation, which may be detrimental to cerebral microvasculature. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an acute bout of RE on hemodynamics and cerebral vascular responses in recreationally active, young adults.

Vascular Haemodynamics In Young Adults Born Extremely Preterm

Adverse cardiovascular outcomes following preterm birth have been described in the literature, but few studies have described these in detail in children and adults born extremely preterm (EP). The EPICure study previously reported on vascular haemodynamics in 11-year-olds born <26 weeks gestation,1 and this cohort has now been reassessed to determine outcomes in young adulthood.

Decreased Aortic Inertance Increases Susceptibility of Late-Systolic Left Ventricular Ejection to Arterial Wave Reflections

Left ventricular (LV) afterload patterns consisting of late-systolic loading has been linked to LV remodeling and fibrosis in a number of studies.  The contributions from arterial wave reflections (WR) has therefore garnered much interest.  Aortic dilation may facilitate the adverse effects of WRs through its effect on aortic inertance.  Decreased aortic inertance from aortic dilation is particularly important in late-systole, when the LV-aortic pressure gradient generally reverses and ejection decelerates until time of aortic valve closure.

Sex Differences In Vascular Structure And Function In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis And Healthy Controls  2016 Best Abstract Award Winner

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in multiple sclerosis (MS), and recent data showed that subclinical markers of atherosclerosis are higher in MS as well.  Prevalence of MS in men is much lower than in women, but their prognosis is much worse.  Men with MS also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than women with MS. Whether vascular function and structure differs in men than in women with MS, and whether potential sex differences are similar to those in healthy controls, is unknown. 

Animal Models of Local Aortic Stiffening: The Effect of Salt in SHRSP

The cardiovascular risk associated with central artery stiffening is recognized but better understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic strategies are needed. Therefore animal models for evaluating stiffness are crucial. We and others use different approaches to calculate aortic stiffness. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is relatively easily measured and is indispensable, despite being highly influenced by blood pressure. Local determination using echotracking allows us to determine stiffness at various levels of the arterial tree and to measure the pulsatile diameter wave (distension). Previously, using this technique, we have shown the presence of an aortic wall stiffening in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) when the pressure effect is complicated by a reduction of nitric oxide or by aging (1-2). Age, endothelial dysfunction and salt are main contributors in human cardiometabolic pathologies.

No Sex Differences in the Cardiovascular Response to Mental-Stress in Older Adults

Mental stress elicits increases in blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness, the magnitude of which, is subject to sex differences.  Women tend to have blunted increases in BP compared to men that are driven by cardiac excitation, rather than changes in peripheral resistance.  These sex differences have primarily been documented in younger, pre-menopausal women, and through the measurement of peripheral (i.e. brachial) BP, which may differ from responses in the central vasculature (i.e. carotid artery).

Improvement in Post-Transplant Hypertension in Living Donor Renal Transplantation

Since genetic factor determines part of hypertensive phenotype, we aim to demonstrate the role of transplanted kidney from normotensive living donors in post-transplant hypertension (HTN).

Rebound Weight Gain and Blood Pressure Control after Living Kidney Donation and Kidney Transplantation

Overweight and obesity are known risk factors of hypertension in both donors and recipients after kidney donation and transplantation, respectively. We aim to study the correlation between blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in donor post-donation and in recipients post-transplantation.

Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Young Obese Adults: the Preliminary Finding

Changes in central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness are associated with augmented cardiovascular risks and have been reported in obese adults with metabolic syndrome. It is unclear whether this observation may also be present in young healthy obese adults with normal metabolic profile.

Vascular Function in individuals with Down Syndrome

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) experience premature aging. Arterial stiffness increases with advancing biological age and predicts cardiovascular disease. . However, only limited studies investigated arterial function in individuals with DS. Thus, the impact of DS on vascular function still remains poorly understood.

Multiple Sclerosis Patients Experience More Decrements in Carotid Artery Functional Properties with Aging than Age-Matched Peers

Peak prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is approaching 60 years of age, suggesting an aging patient population compared to past reports.  Aging is independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.  Additionally, arterial function is compromised with aging.  Carotid artery stiffness serves as a non-invasive method to quantify aspects of arterial function.  As MS patients increase their average lifespan, it is unclear if they may experience differential changes in aspects of carotid artery function compared to their healthy age-matched peers. 

Relations Between Aortic Stiffness And Left Ventricular Mechanical Function

Left ventricular contraction produces longitudinal strain in the proximal aorta.  As a result, aortic stiffening may impair optimal mechanical ventricular-vascular coupling and left ventricular (LV) systolic function, particularly in the long axis.  LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) has recently emerged as a sensitive measure of early cardiac dysfunction.  In this study, we investigated the relation between aortic stiffness and GLS in a large community-based sample.

Sex Differences in Vascular Function Following Antioxidant Supplementation

Sex differences in cardiovascular disease risk and progression are well established.  Estrogen loss following menopause leads to vascular dysfunction,
potentially due to elevations in oxidative stress and subsequent decrements in nitric oxide.  It is possible a reduction in oxidative stress utilizing an antioxidant supplement could improve vascular function in older females.

Pulse Wave Velocity Is Increased With Experimental Sleep Restriction in Healthy Humans

Increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is indicative of vascular stiffening of the central arterial tree.  Aortic stiffness is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.  Following acute (24-hour) sleep deprivation, healthy adults exhibit an increase in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; however, acute sleep deprivation poorly represents sleep patterns observed in everyday life.  With this information in mind, we hypothesized a prolonged (9 day) exposure to restricted sleep (4 hours of sleep per night) would result in increases in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in healthy humans.

Blood Pressure Variability and Baroreceptor Sensitivity in Normotensive Obese in Response to Aerobic Exercise

Autonomic dysfunction, with increased sympathetic activity at rest has been reported in obese individuals. Indices of blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) can provide insight into aspects of autonomic function, particularly following an aerobic exercise bout.

Role of Nitric Oxide in Β2-Adrenergic Mediated Vasodilation in Postmenopausal Women

Postmenopausal (PM) women have a blunted β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated responsiveness when compared to young premenopausal women in part due to a reduction in the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to β 2-adrenergic mediated vasodilation. Hence, we tested the contribution of NO to β 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasodilation during terbutaline infusion.

Associations of Walking with Sarcopenic Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older Adults

To investigate the associations of walking (steps/day) with sarcopenic obesity (SO) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in older adults.

A Hydrogen Sulfide Prodrug Augments Angiogenesis in a Swine Model of Critical Limb Ischemia via a Nitric Oxide Dependent Mechanism

Despite advances in revascularization, treatments for critical limb ischemia (CLI) have been largely unsuccessful. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) and nitric oxide (NO), are endogenous gasotransmitters which exert potent vasodilatory and proangiogenic effects. Resent experimental evidence suggest that the proangiogenic effects of H 2S are medicated in part through the NO pathway. We sought to determine whether a novel H 2S prodrug, SG-1002 (Sulfagenix, Inc. Cleveland OH), increases NO production and promotes peripheral revascularization.

Body Mass Index as an Independent Predictor of Change in Arterial Stiffness Parameters with Change in Body Position

Changing from supine to a seated position creates an orthostatic challenge due to the effects of gravity on the distribution of blood. This redistribution of volume unloads baroreceptors and may evoke sympathetic activation. The sympathetic activation may lead to increases in arterial stiffness, but it is unknown as to how different demographic variables may impact these changes.

A Systematic Review on the Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Arterial Stiffness Reveals A Differential Response in the Upper and Lower Arterial Segments

The overall impact of resistance-type exercises and chronic physical activity on the modulation of arterial stiffness has been well characterized; however, the impact of acute aerobic exercise remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize evidence pertaining to acute changes in arterial stiffness shortly following aerobic exercise in healthy individuals.

Relationship between Step Counts and Carotid Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in Adults Treated For Hypertension and Diabetes

‘Step counts’ captured by wearable physical activity tracking devices are associated with reductions in cardiovascular disease. However, in individuals on cardioprotective medications the impact of step counts may not be captured by the measurement of traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. To address this gap, we aimed to assess the relationship between pedometer-derived step counts and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a summative measure of arterial health.

Higher Central And Brachial Systolic Blood Pressure Is Selectively Associated With Weaker Cognitive Performance In Postmenopausal Women But Not Older Men

Higher aortic stiffness and central blood pressure (BP) are associated with reduced cognitive performance in older adults. Cognitive performance tends to be higher in older women compared with older men, unexplained by differences in years of formal education and/or presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). However, whether gender-related differences in cognitive function are explained by alterations in aortic stiffness or central blood pressure (BP) is unclear.  We hypothesized that higher aortic stiffness and central systolic BP would be associated with weaker cognitive performance in middle-aged/older (MA/O) men but not postmenopausal women.

Bilateral Symmetry of Brachial Pulse Waveform Analysis in a Clinical Population

Pulse waveforms are modified as they propagate along the arterial tree.  Small differences in the arterial pathways from the heart to the left and right brachial artery may impact pulse waveform analysis (PWA) for the purpose of hemodynamic assessment.  The VaSera VS-1500AU (Fukuda Denshi) is a cuff-based device that permits simultaneous acquisition of bilateral brachial pulse volume recordings.  To determine if interchangeability between left and right brachial pulse waveforms is possible, we assessed whether there are significant differences in pulse waveform analysis variables between each arm.

A New Software for Determining Changes in Arterial Diameter over Time

The purpose was to investigate the ability of a new software, developed by our group, to provide continuous measures of arterial diameter from recorded ultrasound video.

Lower Ankle-Brachial Index within the Normal Range is Associated with Reduced Mitochondrial Energy Production, Explaining the accompanying Poor Walking Endurance

Reduced walking endurance in peripheral arterial disease, defined as ABI <0.9, has been attributed to impaired muscle mitochondrial energetics.  Individuals with borderline ABI between 0.9 and 1.0, or low normal ABI between 1.0 and 1.1 have been also found more likely to develop reduced walking endurance than those with higher ABI.  Therefore, we hypothesized that poor walking endurance in individuals with lower ABI in borderline and normal ranges is mediated by impaired mitochondrial energy production.

Greater Early and Late Arterial Loading with Advancing Age is Associated with Impaired Hemodynamic Efficiency in a Community Dwelling Population

Aortic elastic properties are pivotal for proper arterial-ventricular coupling and optimal hemodynamic efficiency, minimizing wasted, potentially damaging, energy.  Major alterations in arterial properties ensue with aging, potentially reducing hemodynamic efficiency.  Therefore, we hypothesized that hemodynamic efficiency is reduced with advancing age in a community dwelling population free of cardiovascular disease; this decline is explained in part by alterations in arterial loading parameters.

Effect of Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid on Arterial Stiffness in High-Risk Pregnancies: An Observational Longitudinal Study

Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to reduce the risk for pre-eclampsia in high-risk pregnancies when prescribed before 16 weeks of gestation. It remains unknown whether this anti-inflammatory agent has effects on arterial stiffness. Our objective was to characterize arterial stiffness indices throughout pregnancy in women with high-risk pregnancies who were and were not prescribed low-dose ASA.

Effect of Poor Glycemic Control on Arterial Stiffness in Pregnancy

Poor glycemic control during pregnancy is associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Our objective was to characterize the association between glycemic control and arterial stiffness in pregnancy.

Dietary Calcium Intake and Cardiovascular Health: Is There Any Relationship?

Calcium intake, recommended for osteoporosis prevention, has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. We examined the association of dietary calcium intake (dCa) with surrogate CV markers, including carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in healthy postmenopausal women.

Statin Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis May Improve Arterial Stiffness in Women but Not In Men: A Preliminary Analysis

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, thereby reducing cardiovascular risk. Arterial stiffness is a composite indicator of cardiovascular health and a predictor of cardiovascular risk. We assessed the effect of statin therapy on arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

First in Man Measurement of Arterial Stiffness Using a Connected Bathroom Scale: Calibration against SphygmoCor

Measurement of arterial stiffness (AS) is still considered difficult.  We developed a non- invasive  technique  to  assess  AS  from  a connected  bathroom  scale,  based  on  ballistocardiography (BCG) and impedance plethysmography (IPG).

Effects of Fixed Versus Auto-Titrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Vascular Function in Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common cause of resistant hypertension. We investigated the effects of 2 modalities of positive airway pressure; fixed continuous airway pressure (fCPAP) versus auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) on arterial function in subjects with resistant hypertension and severe OSA.

The Impact of Intradialytic Pedaling Exercise on Arterial Stiffness in a Hemodialysis Population

Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of increased arterial stiffness. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients. However, the impact of a more realistic intradialytic form of exercise, such as pedaling, is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine 1) the effect of intradialytic pedaling exercise on arterial stiffness over 4 months, and 2) the durability of the pedaling effect 4 months after finishing the exercise intervention. 

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